S&P 500 Index is a market capitalization-weighted price index composed of 500 widely held common stocks.
1 Ned Davis Research conducted a study in which they divided companies into two groups based on whether they paid a dividend during the previous 12 months (dividend-paying stocks) or not (non-dividend paying stocks). The “dividend payers” were then divided further into three groups based on their dividend payout behavior during the previous 12 months. Companies that kept their dividends per share at the same level were classified as “no change.” Companies that raised their dividends were classified as “dividend growers and initiators.” Companies that lowered or eliminated their dividends were classified as “dividend cutters or eliminators.” Companies that were classified as either “dividend growers and initiators” or “dividend cutters and eliminators” remained in these same categories for the next 12 months, or until there was another dividend change. For each of the five categories (dividend payers, dividend non-payers, dividend growers and initiators, dividend non-payers, and no change in dividend policy) a total-return geometric average was calculated; monthly rebalancing was also employed.
Important Risks: Investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal. Security prices fluctuate in value depending on general market and economic conditions and the prospects of individual companies. • For dividend-paying stocks, dividends are not guaranteed and may decrease without notice. • Different investment styles may go in and out of favor, which may cause the Fund to underperform the broader stock market. • Foreign investments may be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. investments and are subject to the risk of currency fluctuations and adverse political, economic and regulatory developments. • To the extent the Fund focuses on one or more sectors, the Fund may be subject to increased volatility and risk of loss if adverse developments occur. • Integration of environmental, social, and/or governance (ESG) characteristics into the investment process may not work as intended.